**Lower Division Courses**

**1. Introduction to Civil Engineering. (2)**

Lecture, two hours. Introduction to scope of civil engineering profession, including earthquake, environmental, geotechnical, structural, transportation, and water resources engineering. P/NP grading.

**15. Introduction to Computing for Civil Engineers. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, four hours. Introduction to computer programming using FORTRAN and MATLAB. Hands-on experience for object-oriented programming. Selected topics in programming, with emphasis on numerical techniques and graphical features as applied to engineering programs. Letter grading.

**19. Fiat Lux Freshman Seminars. (1)**

Seminar, one hour. Discussion of and critical thinking about topics of current intellectual importance, taught by faculty members in their areas of expertise and illuminating many paths of discovery at UCLA. P/NP grading.

**Upper Division Courses**

**101. Statics. (2)**

Lecture, two hours; outside study, four hours. Requisites: Mathematics 31B, Physics 1B. Introduction to equilibrium principles for engineered systems. Study of internal forces and moments in beams, including relationships for shear, axial load, and moment diagrams. Introduction to support conditions and geometric properties of structural members. Letter grading.

**106A. Problem Solving in Engineering Economy. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Designed for juniors/seniors. Problem-solving and decision-making framework for economic analysis of engineering projects. Foundation for understanding corporate financial practices and accounting. Decisions on capital investments and choice of alternatives for engineering applications in all fields. Introduction to use of engineering economics

in analysis of inflation and public investments. Letter grading.

**108. Introduction to Mechanics of Deformable Solids. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: Mathematics 33A, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 102. Review of equilibrium principles; forces and moments transmitted by slender members. Concepts of stress and strain. Material constitution (stress-strain relations). Yield criteria. Structural applications to trusses, beams, shafts, columns, and pressure vessels. Letter grading.

**110. Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers. (4)**

(Formerly numbered 160.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course 15, Mathematics 32A, 33A. Introduction to fundamental concepts and applications of probability and statistics in civil engineering, with focus on how these concepts are used in experimental design and sampling, data analysis, risk and reliability analysis, and project design under uncertainty. Topics include basic probability concepts, random variables and analytical probability distributions,

functions of random variables, estimating parameters from observational data, regression, hypothesis testing, and Bayesian concepts. Letter grading.

**120. Principles of Soil Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 108. Soil as a foundation for structures and as a material of construction. Soil formation, classification, physical and mechanical properties, soil compaction, earth pressures, consolidation, and shear strength. Letter grading.

**130. Elementary Structural Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 108. Analysis of stress and strain, phenomenological material behavior, extension, bending, and transverse shear stresses in beams with general cross-sections, shear center, deflection of beams, torsion of beams, warping, column

instability and failure. Letter grading.

**130F. Experimental Fracture Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Requisite: course 108.

Elementary introduction to fracture mechanics and experimental techniques used in fracture, crack tip stress fields, strain energy release rate, fracture characterization, compliance calibration, surface

flaws, fatigue crack growth and fatigue life of structural components, mixed mode fracture, and individual projects. Letter grading.

**130L. Experimental Structural Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Requisite or corequisite: course 130. Lecture and experiments in limit analysis of various aspects of structures. Elastic and plastic analysis of structural elements in multiaxial stress states. Buckling of columns, plates, and shells. Effects of actual boundary conditions on structural performance. Evaluation of structural fasteners. Letter grading.

**135A. Elementary Structural Analysis. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 15, 108. Introduction to structural analysis; classification of structural elements; analysis of statically determinate trusses, beams, and frames; deflections in elementary structures; virtual work; analysis of indeterminate structures using force method; introduction to displacement method and energy concepts. Letter grading.

**135B. Intermediate Structural Analysis. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 135A. Analysis of truss and frame structures using matrix methods; matrix force methods; matrix displacement method; analysis concepts based on theorem of virtual work; moment distribution. Letter grading.

**135C. Finite Element Methods. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, seven hours. Requisites: courses 130, 135B. Direct approach for truss analysis, strong form and weak form, approximation functions for finite element methods, weighted residual methods, Ritz method, variational method, convergence criteria

and rate of convergence, natural coordinates and shape functions, iosparametric finite elements, finite element formulation of multidimensional heat flow and elasticity, numerical integration and

approximation properties, finite element formulation of beam. Letter grading.

**135L. Structural Design and Testing Laboratory. (4)**

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, four hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 15, 135A. Limited enrollment. Computer-aided optimum design, construction, instrumentation, and test of a small-scale model structure. Use of computer-based data acquisition and interpretation systems for comparison of experimental and theoretically predicted behavior. Letter grading.

**137. Elementary Structural Dynamics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 135B. Basic structural dynamics course for civil engineering students. Elastic free, forced vibration, and earthquake response spectra analysis for single and multidegree of freedom systems. Axial, bending, and torsional vibration of beams. Letter grading.

**137L. Structural Dynamics Laboratory. (4)**

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Requisite or corequisite: course 137. Calibration of instrumentation for dynamic measurements. Determination of natural frequencies and damping factors from free vibrations. Determination of natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping factors from forced vibrations. Dynamic similitude. Letter grading.

**141. Steel Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 135B. Introduction to building codes. Fundamentals of load and resistance factor design of steel elements. Design of tension and compression members. Design of beams and beam columns. Simple connection

design. Introduction to computer modeling methods. Letter grading.

**142. Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures. (4)**

Lecture, three hours; discussion, three hours; outside study, six hours. Requisite: course 135A. Beams, columns, and slabs in reinforced concrete structures. Properties of reinforced concrete materials. Design of beams and slabs for flexure, shear, anchorage of reinforcement, and deflection. Design of columns for axial force, bending, and shear. Ultimate strength design methods. Letter grading.

**142L. Reinforced Concrete Structural Laboratory. (4)**

Lecture, two hours; laboratory, six hours; outside study, four hours. Requisite: course 142. Limited enrollment. Design considerations used for reinforced concrete beams, columns, slabs, and joints evaluated using analysis and experiments. Links between technical theory, building codes, and experimental results. Letter grading.

**143. Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; discussion, two hours; outside study, six hours. Requisites: courses 135A, 142. Prestressing and post-tensioning techniques. Properties of concrete and prestressing steels. Design considerations: anchorage/bonding of cables/wire, flexure analysis by superposition and strength methods, draping of cables, deflection and stiffness, indeterminate structures, limitation of prestressing. Letter grading.

**144. Structural Systems Design. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 137, 141, 142. Design course for civil engineering students, with focus on design and performance of complete building structural systems. Uniform Building Code dead, live, wind, and earthquake loads. Design of concrete masonry building. Computer analysis of performance of designed building. Letter grading.

**147. Design and Construction of Tall Buildings. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 141. Limited enrollment. Introduction to total design process and professional participants. Systematic presentation of advantages and limitations of different structural forms and systems. Identification of critical design factors influenced by tallness. Foundation systems. Construction site visits, costing, and scheduling. Letter grading.

**198. Special Studies in Civil Engineering. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Special topics in civil engineering to be taught to undergraduates when need and/or opportunity arise. Letter grading.

**199. Special Studies. (2 to 8)**

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to seniors. Individual investigation of selected topic to be arranged with a faculty member. Enrollment request forms available in department office. Occasional field trips may be arranged. May be repeated for credit. Letter grading.

**Graduate Courses**

**M230A. Mechanics of Deformable Solids. (4)**

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M256A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 156A or 166A. Development of fundamental principles and equations of solid mechanics. Cartesian tensors; kinematics of large and small deformations; balance laws of mass, momentum, and energy; constitutive relations of elasticity, thermoelasticity, and viscoelasticity for isotropic and anisotropic solids; solution of selected problems. Letter grading.

**M230B. Elasticity. (4)**

(Formerly numbered M230.) (Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M256B.) Lecture, four hours;

outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course M230A. Solution of linear elastostatic problems using special techniques. Field equations of linear elastostatics; uniqueness of solution; Betti/Rayleigh reciprocity relation; solution of two-dimensional problems using stress functions; stress concentration at holes and inclusions; complex variables and transform methods in elasticity; stress singularity at cracks and corners; stresses and strains in composites; three-dimensional problems

— Kelvin, Boussinesq, and Cerruti problems, boundary integral equation method. Letter grading.

**232. Theory of Plates and Shells.(4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 130 or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 156B. Small and large deformation theories of thin plates; energy methods; free vibrations; membrane theory of shells; axisymmetric deformations of cylindrical and spherical shells, including bending. Letter grading.

**233. Mechanics of Composite Material Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses M230B, 232. Elastic, anisotropic stress-strain-temperature relations. Analysis of prismatic beams by three-dimensional elasticity. Analysis of laminated anisotropic plates and shells based on classical and first-order shear deformation theories. Elastodynamic behavior of laminated plates and cylinders. Letter grading.

**234. Advanced Topics in Structural Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Limited to graduate engineering students. Current topics in composite materials, computational methods, finite element analysis, structural synthesis, nonlinear mechanics, and structural mechanics in general. Topics may vary from term to term. Letter grading.

**235A. Advanced Structural Analysis. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 135A. Recommended: course 135B. Review of matrix force and displacement methods of structural analysis; virtual work theorem, virtual forces, and displacements; theorems on stationary value of total and complementary potential energy, minimum total potential energy, Maxwell/Betti theorems, effects of approximations, introduction to finite element analysis. Letter grading.

**235B. Finite Element Analysis of Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 130, 235A. Direct energy formulations for deformable systems; solution methods for linear equations; analysis of structural systems with one-dimensional elements; introduction to variational calculus; discrete element

displacement, force, and mixed methods for membrane, plate, shell structures; instability effects. Letter grading.

**235C. Nonlinear Structural Analysis. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 235B. Classification of nonlinear effects; material nonlinearities; conservative, nonconservative material behavior; geometric nonlinearities, Lagrangian, Eulerian description of motion; finite element methods in geometrically

nonlinear problems; postbuckling behavior of structures; solution of nonlinear equations; incremental, iterative, programming methods. Letter grading.

**236. Stability of Structures I. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 130 or 135B. Elastic buckling of bars. Different approaches to stability problems. Inelastic buckling of columns and beam columns. Columns and beam columns with linear, nonlinear creep. Combined torsional and flexural buckling

of columns. Buckling of plates. Letter grading.

**M237A. Dynamics of Structures. (4)**

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M269A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 137. Principles of dynamics. Determination of normal modes and frequencies by differential and integral equation solutions. Transient and steady state response. Emphasis on derivation and solution of governing equations using matrix formulation. Letter grading.

**238. Computational Solid Mechanics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 235B. Advanced finite element and meshfree methods for computational solid mechanics. Stability and consistency in temporal discretization of parabolic and hyperbolic systems. Analysis of numerical dissipation and dispersion. Multifield variational principles for constrained problems. Meshfree methods: approximation theories, Galerkin meshfree methods, collocation meshfree methods, imposition of boundary conditions, domain

integration, stability. Letter grading.

**M239. Plasticity. (4)**

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M256C.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 256A, M256B. Classical rate-independent plasticity theory, yield functions, flow rules and thermodynamics. Classical rate-dependent viscoplasticity, Perzyna and Duvant/Lions types of viscoplasticity. Thermoplasticity and creep. Return mapping algorithms for plasticity and viscoplasticity. Finite element implementations. Letter grading.

**M240. Optimum Structural Design. (4)**

(Same as Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering M267A.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 235A or Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 261A. Synthesis of structural systems; analysis and design as optimization problems; techniques for synthesis and optimization; application to aerospace and civil structures. Letter grading.

**241. Advanced Steel Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 137, 141, 235A. Performance characterization of steel structures for static and earthquake loads. Behavior state analysis and building code provisions for special moment resisting, braced, and eccentric braced frames. Composite steel-concrete structures. Letter grading.

**242. Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 142. Design of building and other

structural systems for vertical and lateral loads. Earthquake forces. Ductility in elements and systems. Columns: secondary effects and biaxial bending. Slabs: code and analysis methods. Footings, shear walls, diaphragms, chords, and collectors. Detailing for ductile behavior. Retrofitting. Letter grading.

**243A. Behavior and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structural Elements. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 142. Advanced topics on design of reinforced concrete structures, including stress-strain relationships for plain and confined concrete, moment-curvature analysis of sections, and design for shear. Design of slender and low-rise walls, as well as design of beam-column joints. Introduction to displacement-based design and applications of strut-and-tie models. Letter grading.

**243B. Response and Design of Reinforced Concrete Structural Systems. (4)**

(Formerly numbered 243.) Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 243A, 246. Information on response and behavior of reinforced concrete buildings to earthquake ground motions. Topics include use of elastic and inelastic response spectra, role of strength, stiffness, and ductility in design, use of prescriptive versus performance-based design methodologies, and application of elastic and inelastic analysis techniques for new and existing construction. Letter

grading.

**244. Structural Loads and Safety for Civil Structures. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisite: course 141 or 142 or 143 or 144. Modeling of uncertainties in structural loads and structural mechanics; structural safety analysis; and calculation of capacity reduction factors. Letter grading.

**246. Structural Response to Ground Motions. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 137, 141, 142, 235A. Spectral analysis of ground motions: response, time, and Fourier spectra. Response of structures to ground motions due to earthquakes. Computational methods to evaluate structural response. Response analysis, including evaluation of contemporary design standards. Limitations due to idealizations. Letter grading.

**247. Advanced Structural Dynamics for Civil Engineering. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: courses 137, 235A, 235B, M237A or 246. Dynamic response of linear structures with proportional and nonproportional damping using modal superposition methods. Dynamic response of inelastic systems using numerical integration. Introduction to base isolation and active structural control. Earthquake engineering applications. Letter grading.

**248. Probabilistic Structural Dynamics. (4)**

Lecture, four hours; outside study, eight hours. Requisites: course 244, Electrical Engineering 131A, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 174. Introduction to probability theory and random processes. Dynamic analysis of linear and nonlinear structural systems subjected to stationary and nonstationary random excitations. Reliability studies related to first excursion and fatigue failures. Applications in earthquake, offshore, wind, and aerospace engineering. Letter grading.

**249. Selected Topics in Structural Engineering and Mechanics. (2)**

Lecture, two hours; outside study, six hours. Review of recent research and developments in structural engineering and mechanics. Structural analysis, finite elements, structural stability, dynamics of structures, structural design, earthquake engineering, ground motion, elasticity, plasticity, structural mechanics, mechanics of composites, and constitutive modeling. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

**296. Advanced Topics in Civil Engineering. (2 to 4)**

Seminar, to be arranged. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. S/U grading.

**297. Seminar: Current Topics in Civil Engineering. (2 to 4)**

Seminar, to be arranged. Lectures, discussions, and student presentations and projects in areas of current interest in civil engineering. May be repeated for credit. S/U grading.

**298. Seminar: Engineering. (2 to 4)**

Seminar, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Seminars may be organized in advanced technical fields. If appropriate, field trips may be arranged. May be repeated with topic change. Letter grading.

**375. Teaching Apprentice Practicum. (1 to 4)**

Seminar, to be arranged. Preparation: apprentice personnel employment as a teaching assistant, associate, or fellow. Teaching apprenticeship under active guidance and supervision of a regular faculty member responsible for curriculum and instruction at the University. May be repeated for

credit. S/U grading.

**495. Teaching Assistant Training Seminar. (2)**

Seminar, two hours. Preparation: appointment as teaching assistant in Civil and Environmental Engineering Department. Seminar on communication of civil engineering principles, concepts, and

methods; teaching assistant preparation, organization, and presentation of material, including use of visual aids; grading, advising, and rapport with students. S/U grading.

**596. Directed Individual or Tutorial Studies. (2 to 8)**

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Petition forms to request enrollment may be obtained from assistant dean, Graduate Studies. Supervised investigation of advanced technical problems. S/U grading.

**597A. Preparation for M.S. Comprehensive Examination. (2 to 12)**

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Reading and preparation for M.S. comprehensive examination. S/U grading.

**597B. Preparation for Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations. (2 to 16)**

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. S/U grading.

597C. Preparation for Ph.D. Oral Qualifying Examination. (2 to 16)

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Preparation for oral qualifying examination, including preliminary research on dissertation. S/U grading.

598. Research for and Preparation of M.S. Thesis. (2 to 12)

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Supervised independent research for M.S. candidates, including thesis prospectus. S/U grading.

599. Research for and Preparation of Ph.D. Dissertation. (2 to 16)

Tutorial, to be arranged. Limited to graduate civil engineering students. Usually taken after students have been advanced to candidacy. S/U grading.